FORTY FORT EYE ASSOCIATES AND HOME EYE CARE

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FORTY FORT EYE ASSOCIATES AND HOME EYE CARE

FOUNDED IN 1949

CELEBRATING 23 YEARS OF PROVIDING QUALITY EYECARE TO THE RESIDENTS OF NORTHEASTERN PENNSYLVANIA

JASON SMITH, OD, MS, FABCO

The red star below shows the location of Forty Fort Eye Associates and Home Eye Care

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SECTION 1-HISTORY, SECTION 2-EDUCATIONAL

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  • PERSONALIZED FAMILY OPTOMETRIC CARE
  • HOME EYE CARE AND NURSING HOME CARE
  • GAS PERMEABLE AND SOFT CONTACT LENS RESEARCH
  • CONSULTING SERVICE FOR CONTACT LENSES
  • REFRACTIVE SURGERY COMANAGEMENT CENTER
  • OPTICAL REPAIRS
  • VISION, HEALTH, AND MEDICAL EDUCATION AND INFORMATION
  • ON-SITE OPTICAL AND CONTACT LENS LABORATORY
  • HOUSE CALL SERVICES TO HOMEBOUND RESIDENTS
  • COLLEGE EDUCATOR, CONTINUING EDUCATION PROVIDER
  • FEATURES WRITER FOR EYECARE PROFESSIONAL MAGAZINE

†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

SECTION 1-HISTORY

Forty Fort Eye Associates and Home Eye Care are located at 1600 Wyoming Avenue (Route 11) at the corner of Arlington Road in Forty Fort, Pennsylvania, 18704. The office is located 3 miles from Wilkes-Barre, PA, in Luzerne County, and in Wyoming Valley. The office phone number is (570) 288-1218, the fax number is (570) 287-2673, and the office e-mail address is jasonffea@epix.net. Dr. Jason Smith has been providing personalized quality, family eye care to the residents of Northeastern Pennsylvania since his father, Dr. Joseph Smith founded this practice in 1949. Dr. Joseph Smith passed away in December, 2012 at the age of 89. He was one of the leading research optometrists in the contact lens industry. He lectured extensively and had written numerous articles on his many patented processes for manufacturing and finishing gas permeable contact lenses. He was a graduate of the Pennsylvania College of Optometry in Philadelphia, and served as a visiting faculty member at this optometric institution. He attended the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Maryland and taught engineering and mathematics while in the U.S. Army. He founded OMNI-LENS CORPORATION which manufactured and distributed gas permeable contact lenses nationwide with offices and laboratory facilities located in Forty Fort. He was a member of the American Academy of Optometry, the American, Pennsylvania, and Northeastern Pennsylvania Optometric Associations, and the Society for Inventors and Scientists of America. He had served as an adjunct faculty member at the Pennsylvania College of Optometry, had taught at Allied Medical Center, was Past-President of the Plymouth Kiwanis Club, and served 2 terms as President of the Torch Club of Wilkes-Barre. He had been featured on many local and national news and television programs including PM magazine and CNBC featuring the latest research and advances in rigid gas permeable lens technology. He held patents for gas permeable finishing processes in the United States and in Canada. In 2009, Dr. Smith was awarded a 60 year membership plaque by the Northeastern Pennsylvania Optometric Association.

Dr. Jason Smith is a graduate of the New England College of Optometry in Boston, MA, the University Of South Florida in Tampa, FL, the University of Florida in Gainesville, FL, King's College in Wilkes-Barre, PA, and Wyoming Seminary College Preparatory School in Kingston, PA. He is the founder of HOME EYE CARE which provides optometric care to homebound and nursing home patients. The latest portable equipment is used to provide complete eye examinations which include evaluations for glaucoma, macular degeneration, and retinal and diabetic eye diseases. Hand-held trial lenses are used in order to check an eyeglass prescription and eyeglasses can be provided when necessary. Dr. Smith is currently the staff optometrist at many nursing homes in Luzerne County. These nursing homes include Wesley Village in Inkerman, Birchwood in Nanticoke, Manor Care in Kingston, Summit in Wilkes-Barre, River Run in Kingston, Riverview Ridge in Wilkes-Barre. In 1995, he was featured on the front page of the Times Leader Newspaper about doctors making house calls. In 2000, he was again featured in the Citizen's Voice newspaper in an article about Home Eye Care. He is very interested in current health issues, health problems, and health education. His dedication to continuing medical and health education is evidenced by the fact that Dr. Smith completed his 4th academic degree at King's College in 1999 with a Master of Science Degree in Health Care Administration. He is the 1st and only optometrist to complete this graduate program at King's College. In 1998, Dr. Smith was awarded a graduate certificate of achievement in recognition of completing the requirements for Executive Leadership in Health Care Administration at King's College. In 1999, he was appointed as an adjunct faculty member at King's College and taught courses in Long-term Care Administration and Community Health. He has served on the faculty advisory for health care administration at King's College for the past 15 years. Dr. Smith is treating many eye conditions as a result of a new optometric therapeutic drug law that went into effect in 1997. Conditions such as corneal abrasions, keratitis, allergic, bacterial, and viral conjunctivitis, blepharitis, dry eyes, and ocular inflammation are now being treated by optometrists in Pennsylvania. In November, 2002, the Pennsylvania State Legislature amended and revised the current ocular therapeutics drug bill. Optometrists now are able to use steroids to treat inflammatory diseases and to use glaucoma medications. Optometrists licensed in the state of Pennsylvania will now have to take an additional 18 credits of continuing education courses every two years bringing the total to 30 credits every two years, in order to maintain an optometric license. In this highly regarded contact lens practice, he is currently doing research with patients who have a corneal degenerative disease process called keratoconus.Dr. Smith has recently authored Chapter 10 in a book titled CHILDREN'S HEALTH PROBLEMS, edited by Dr. Bernard Healey, the Director of the Health Care Administration program at King's College. This chapter is titled " Vision Problems Children Encounter: A Guide for Parents".This book also includes other topics that parents would be interested in including tobacco use, diabetes, nutrition, self esteem issues, drugs and alcohol, STD's, high-risk behaviors, and juvenile arthritis.In 2012, Dr. Smith was named a Fellow of the newly formed American Board of Clinical Optometry. He is a member of the American, Pennsylvania, and Northeastern Pennsylvania Optometric Associations, the American College of Health Care Executives, the American Public Health Association, the National Academy of Opticianry, the National Society to Prevent Blindness, and the American Foundation for Vision Awareness. In 2009, Dr. Smith was awarded a 20 year membership plaque by the Northeastern Pennsylvania Optometric Association. In 1997, Dr. Smith was asked to serve on a task force for the City of Wilkes-Barre Health Department in order to evaluate health and vision problems affecting the residents of the city. Vision screenings and health education are now provided to the city residents when the health department offers their regular health screenings to the city residents within the different communities of Wilkes-Barre. Ms. Marie Kolesa provides all types of opticianry, business, and professional support that provide a unique and pleasant environment that will continue to provide quality eye care and medical care to the residents of Northeastern Pennsylvania into the 21st century. In 2010, Dr.Smith became a features writer for Eye Care Professional Magazine which provides vision information to ophthalmologists, optometrists, and opticians in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. He writes articles for this journal titled "OD Perspective". As of September, 2015, he has had 30 articles published which can be viewed on the Internet at www.ecpmag.com. His 30th article was published in the September, 2015 edition of Eye Care Professional Magazine and is titled "The Flu Epidemic". His 26th article is pending publication in October, 2015 and is titled " Glaucoma". In October and November, 2014, he also had 2 additional articles published in Optometric Management Journal on "Identification Theft" and "The Ebola Virus."

 

 

 

 

 

 

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MY FAVORITE LINKS-CLICK ON THE WEBSITE NAME TO GO THERE

ALL ABOUT VISION

KING'S COLLEGE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA

KING'S COLLEGE HEALTH CARE ADMINISTRATION

COLLEGE MISERICORDIA

CITIZEN'S VOICE NEWSPAPER

TIMES LEADER NEWSPAPER

WYOMING SEMINARY COLLEGE PREPARATORY SCHOOL

EPIX

GOOGLE

SECO, INTERNATIONAL

WEBMD

REVIEW OF OPTOMETRY

AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION

OPTOMETRIC MANAGEMENT

CONTACT LENS SPECTRUM

AMERICAN ACADEMY OF OPTOMETRY

AMERICAN OPTOMETRIC ASSOCIATION

NATIONAL EYE INSTITUTE

AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION

THE AMERICAN DIABETES ASSOCIATION

MACULAR DEGENERATION INTERNATIONAL

PREVENT BLINDNESS AMERICA

WEBSHOTS

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jasonffea@epix.net--Dr. Jason Smith's e-mail (pictured below)

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SECTION 2-EDUCATIONAL INFORMATION

THIS SECTION OF THE WEBSITE IS CURRENTLY BEING UPDATED

WHEN COMPLETED, THERE WILL BE OVER 65 ITEMS LISTED

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ANATOMY,VISION DISORDERS, EYE DISEASES, INTERNET LINKS

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Forty Fort Eye Associates, Home Eye Care, and Dr. Smith provide this on-line information for educational, academic, and communication purposes only. This information should not be construed as personal medical advice. Information that is published on this website is not intended to replace, supplant, or augment a consultation with a physician, an ophthalmologist, or an optometrist regarding the viewer or userís own medical care. Forty Fort Eye Associates disclaims any and all liability for injury or damages that could result from the use of the information obtained from this website.

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ANATOMY

The ability to see is dependent upon the actions of several structures in and around the eyeball. The graphic below lists many of the essential components of the eye's optical system.

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When you look at an object, light rays are reflected from the object to the cornea, which is where the miracle of sight begins. The light rays are bent or refracted and focused by the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous. The job of the lens is to make sure that the rays of light come to a sharp focus on the retina. The resulting image on the retina is upside-down. At the retina, the light rays are converted to electrical impulses which are then transmitted to the optic nerve. These impulses are transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain where the image is translated and perceived in an upright position.

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Think of the eye as a camera. A camera needs a lens and film to produce an image. In the same way the eye needs a lens (the cornea, the lens, and the vitreous) to refract or to focus rays of light. If any one of these components do not function correctly, the result is a poor picture. The retina represents the film in our camera. It captures the image and sends the information to the brain to be developed. The macula is the highly sensitive area that is responsible for focusing our vision. It is the part of the retina most often used to see.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.lib.berkeley.edu/OPTO/eyeanat.html

www.brainseye.com/anatomy.htm

www.wa-eyemd.org/anatomy%20tool.htm

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AMBLYOPIA

Amblyopia is a term used to describe an uncorrectable loss of vision in an eye that appears to be normal. It is commonly referred to as a "lazy eye" and can occur for a variety of reasons. A child's visual system is usually fully developed by the ages of 9-11. Until that age, children readily adapt to visual problems by suppressing or blocking out a blurry image. If it is found early enough, amblyopia can often be corrected and vision can be preserved. However, after the age of 11, it is difficult if not impossible to train the brain to use the eye normally. The treatment for amblyopia depends upon the underlying problem. In some cases, the stronger eye can be temporarily patched so that the child is forced to use the weaker eye. Patching therapy can also require the good eye to be patched to help balance the vision in both eyes. Sometimes special eyeglasses with prisms or muscle surgery may be needed. Some causes of amblyopia include strabismus, crossed eyes, esotropia, exotropia, congenital cataracts, a cloudy cornea, droopy eyelids, ptosis, unequal vision, uncorrected astigmatism, and hyperopia (farsightedness). Amblyopia may occur in various degrees depending on the severity of the underlying problem. Some patients experience just a partial loss of vision, while others have a more significant loss of vision. Patients with amblyopia lack binocular vision, depth perception, or stereopsis. This involves an inability to blend the images of both eyes together. Stereopsis is what allows us to appreciate depth. Without stereopsis, the ability to judge distance is impaired.

Other websites that you can visit include:

www.prevent blindness.org/children/amblyopiaFAQ.html

www.aoanet.org/cpg-4-cpa.html

www.strabismus.org/amblyopia_lazy_eye.html

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ASTIGMATISM

Astigmatism is a condition of refraction where light rays coming from a single point are not focused at one point but instead are focused as two images. When astigmatism is corrected in eyeglasses or contact lenses, the lens surface resembles a football (toric shaped). If one does not have astigmatism, then the lenses would resemble the shape of a baseball (round shaped). Astigmatism may be caused by the shape of the cornea and the shape of the lens. Most astigmatic corneas have 2 curves; a steeper curve and a flatter curve. This causes light to focus on more than one point in the eye causing blurred or distorted vision in the distance, at reading distances, or both. It can occur in combination with farsightedness or with nearsightedness.

Below is an anatomical representation as to how light focuses in a normal eye and when astigmatism is present.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.lasersurgeryfor eyes.com/myopiawastig.html

www.umsl.edu/~fraundor/epc/

www.aonet.org/CVC-astigmatism.html

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BLEPHARITIS

Blepharitis is a common inflammatory condition that affects the eyelids. It usually causes irritation of the eyelid margins, burning, tearing, itching, or crusting around the eyelids upon awakening. Inflammation of the white of the eye related to conjunctivitis, superficial inflammation of the cornea called keratitis, and styes are often associated with blepharitis. Treatment is usually scrubbing the eyelid margins with a mild shampoo like Johnson's baby shampoo twice a day using a warm washcloth. Warm compresses can be applied to the eyelids for 15 minutes 4 times a day. If there is an associated dry eye syndrome, preservative-free artificial tears can be used as often as 4-8 times a day. If the condition is moderately severe, erythromycin or bacitracin ointment can be used 3 times a day and at bedtime. Eyelid cleansing and the use of warm compresses can be reduced as the condition improves. Like dandruff, there is no cure for blepharitis but it can be controlled.

The picture below shows an eyelid margin with scaling of the eyelashes, pus, redness, and edema.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.aoanet.org/ed-blepharitis.html

www.eyemdlink.com/conditions/blepharitis.htm

www.blepharitis.org

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BRANCH RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

A branch retinal vein occlusion can have symptoms of a blind spot in the visual field or a loss of vision usually occurring in one eye. Superficial hemorrhages can develop in a sector of the retina along a retinal vein as shown by the blue arrows. Sometimes central vein occlusions occur when the circulation of the central retinal vein becomes obstructed by an adjacent blood vessel. This can also cause the vein to hemorrhage. Swelling and retinal ischemia (a lack of oxygen) are secondary complications. Treatment can involve the use of retinal laser photocoagulation if there is edema in the macula of 3-6 months duration or if vision is less than 20/40. Treatment of any underlying medical problems is also necessary.

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The picture below is a normal, healthy retina

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.vrmny.com/venous.htm

www.revoptom.com/handbook/sect5f.htm

www.neec.com/messages/1798.html

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BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

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A basal cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that occurs most commonly on the face or on the neck. It is commonly seen on or near the eyelid margins as seen in this photograph. The tumor cells are thought to originate from the basal, or innermost layer of the skin. Two types of basal cell carcinoma are seen; a nodular type which has a firm mass with telangiectasia (dilated blood vessels) over the tumor margins. Sometimes the center of the lesion is ulcerated. The other type is a morpheaform type which has appears as a firm, flat subcutaneous lesion with indistinct borders. Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer in the United States. For every 100,000 citizens, 100 cases are reported every year. Fair-skinned people over age 50 are most commonly affected and it is rare among those people with darker skin complexions. The incidence increases significantly with sun exposure. Those people who work outdoors or who live in sunny climates such as Hawaii, Arizona, Texas, and Florida are at a higher risk. In Queensland, Australia, over half of the Caucasian population has had at least one incidence of basal cell carcinoma by age 75. The Australian national government is currently funding an ongoing campaign to warn and to protect its' citizens concerning the damage that the sun can do. The ultraviolet radiation in sunlight is thought to be the cause in most cases. People with dark complexions have more melanin and more pigmentation in their skin which absorbs higher amounts of the damaging ultraviolet rays. Since fair-skinned people have less melanin, they are not able to withstand the effects of ultraviolet exposure. Over 90% of basal cell carcinomas occur on the face, often at the side of the eye or on the nose. However, the tumor can appear virtually anywhere on the body. It starts as a small, flat nodule and grows slowly, eventually breaking down at the center to form a shallow ulcer with raised edges. Left untreated, the growth gradually invades the surrounding tissue. Fortunately, basal cell carcinomas almost never metastasize (spread to other parts of the body). Diagnosis is made by microscopic examination of the tumor cells by a laboratory. Individuals at risk should avoid overexposure to strong sunlight. Protective clothing, brimmed hats and sunscreen should be used. Basal cell carcinoma can be destroyed with radiation therapy or removed surgically. Surgery offers the best chance for a complete cure however, new tumors may develop if adequate preventive measures are not taken.

Other websites that you can visit include:

www.skinsite.com/info_basal_cell_carcinoma.htm

www.aafp.org/afp/980415ap/english.html

www.netautopsy.org/basalcel.htm

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BRANCH RETINAL ARTERY OCCLUSION

A branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) occurs when an artery branching from the central retinal artery becomes blocked. This blockage is usually caused by an embolus (blood clot) in the blood stream. The occlusion decreases the blood supply to the area of the retina nourished by the affected artery. The classic symptoms of BRAO include a sudden, painless loss of vision in one eye. In the photograph below, the affected area of the retina is the pale, whitish-yellow area marked by the blue arrows. The surrounding reddish-orange area remains as healthy retinal tissue. Patients may have a history of a transient visual loss referred to as amaurosis fugax.

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This picture below is of a normal, healthy retina.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.medinfo.ufl/year2/ophthal/slide27.html

www.revoptom.com/handbook/sect5g.htm

www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic777.htm

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CATARACTS

The term cataract refers to the clouding of the normally transparent crystalline lens of the eye. The lens is located behind the pupil and focuses light onto the retina in the back of the eye so that we can see clearly. The word cataract comes from the Greek word for waterfall. It was thought that a cataract was formed by opaque material flowing, like a waterfall into the eye. Cataracts are actually formed as a result of aging, injury, ultraviolet light, drugs, systemic and ocular disease. People with cataracts and blurred vision often find that their everyday activities like driving, reading, watching TV, and even walking become increasingly difficult. To improve their quality of life, sometimes a new eyeglass prescription may help. But ultimately in order to improve the quality of life, cataract surgery can restore the ability to perform these activities. As the lens becomes increasingly opaque, light rays entering the eye are prevented from focusing onto the retina, the light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. Symptoms of cataracts include blurred vision, sensitivity to light, glare, and a dimming of colors and of vision. The picture below shows the development of a cataract. In the picture, the center of the pupil has a whitish, cloudy appearance. This is a cataract that is developing within the lens. Under other lighting conditions, this may appear as a yellow color which is referred to as nuclear sclerosis.

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The pictures below show cataract development.

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Nuclear sclerosis

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Cortical

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Anatomical-side view. Picture to the left is a posterior sub-capsular cataract seen by the white shaded area. The picture to the right is an anterior and posterior sub-capsular cataract seen as the white shaded area.

Other websites that you can visit include:

http://www.nei.nih.gov/publications/cataracts.htm

http://Blindness.about.com/cs/cataracts/

http://www.drkoop.com/dyncon/toc.asp?id=1110

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CENTRAL RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSION

A central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO) occurs when the circulation of the central retinal vein becomes obstructed by an adjacent blood vessel. This causes the vein to hemorrhage into the layers of the retina. As seen in the picture below, hemorrhages are seen on the retina. Other signs that can be seen include cotton wool spots. These are white, fluffy lesions with feathered edges also seen in the photograph below. Cotton wool spots lie in the nerve fiber layer of the retina and represent a micro-infarct, implying an ischemic micro-vascular disease. Other signs of CRVO include optic disc edema, retinal edema, and neovascularization of the optic disc. CRVO may occur due to hypertension, glaucoma, vasculitis, abnormal platelet function, thyroid disease, or polycythemia. CRVO causes a marked decrease in vision and requires immediate attention.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.revoptom.com/handbook/sect5f.htm

www.retinamd.com/data/centralretveinocclusion.html

www.qis.net/~ajrein/album/central.htm

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CHALAZION

A chalazion is an eyelid lump which can cause swelling, pain, and tenderness. It is caused by the blockage of an oil-producing gland and can occur on the outside or the inside of the upper or lower eyelid. The picture below shows a chalazion on the lower eyelid. Treatment for chalazia includes warm compresses for 15-20 minutes 4 times a day. Light eyelid massage over the nodule can tend to loosen the pyogenic granules that accumulate within the nodule. Chalazia usually do not cause pain because this is not an infectious process compared to the appearance of a stye which is usually painful. A topical antibiotic ointment such as bacitracin or erythromycin ointment used twice a day over the nodule is sometimes helpful. Steroid injections consisting of triamcinolone 40 mg/ml is sometimes injected into and around the chalazion, although steroid injections can lead to permanent depigmentation of the skin around the injection site. If the chalazion does not disappear after 3-4 weeks of appropriate medical therapy, the patient can choose to have this removed. Surgical incision and drainage of the lipid globule material and multinucleated giant cells will resolve the chalazion.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.chalazion.com/

www.revoptom.com/handbook/sect1d.htm

www.health-md.net/chalazion.htm

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CHOROIDAL NEVUS

A choroidal nevus is a flat, benign, pigmented area in the choroid which is a layer behind the retina. In the photograph below, it appears as the darker brown area. Nevi are similar to freckles on your skin and do not typically change or grow. Retinal photographs are usually taken to monitor any changes over time.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.nevus.org/about/aboutnevi.html

www.revoptom.com/handbook/sect5j.htm

www.retinaconsultations.com/texts/choroidalnevus.html

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CONJUNCTIVITIS

Conjunctivitis is commonly referred to as pink eye. It is an inflammation or an infection of the outer layer or outer covering of the eye called the conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis may be characterized by redness, tearing, itching, or a discharge that causes the eyelids to stick together especially in the morning. The three most common types of conjunctivitis are viral, allergic, and bacterial. Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an upper respiratory tract infection, flu, colds, rhinovirus, or sore throats. The virus can be very contagious and easily spread with human contact. Disinfecting surfaces such as doorknobs and counter tops, avoiding touching the nose or face, not sharing washcloths or towels, and frequent hand-washing can reduce the spread of any infection. Like the common cold, there is no cure for viral conjunctivitis. Visual symptoms can be relieved by using cool compresses around the eyes or by using artificial tears. In certain cases, topical steroid drops will help to reduce the inflammation and will increase comfort. Most viral conjunctivitis resolves within 3 weeks or less. Allergic conjunctivitis causes symptoms such as watery, itchy eyes which may include swollen eyelids. Symptoms are usually seasonal and can be at their worst during the hay fever season in the spring or early summer. Cool compresses and artificial tears may help relieve some discomfort in mild cases. In more severe cases, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drops and ocular antihistamines can be used. Bacterial conjunctivitis is characterized by swollen conjunctiva, redness, tearing, irritation, and a discharge that often causes the eyelids to stick together. This may only affect one eye but can spread to both eyes. The most common bacteria causing this type of conjunctivitis are staphylococcus and streptococcus. Antibiotic drops or antibiotic ointments are prescribed and this can sometimes be used in conjunction with a steroid-antibiotic combination drug.

The two photographs below show the redness and watery eye associated with conjunctivitis.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.aafp.org/afp/980215ap/morrow.html

www.eyemdlink.com/conditions/conjunctivitis.htm

www.revoptom.com/handbook/section2c.htm

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CORNEAL DYSTROPHIES

Corneal dystrophies are a rare group of slowly progressive, usually bilateral, degenerative disorders which usually appear in the second or third decades of life. Some corneal dystrophies are hereditary and can be classified according to their anatomical site within the cornea. Meesman's dystrophy is an autosomal dominant hereditary condition in which cysts are present between the epithelial cells. The dystrophy of Reis and Bucklers is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by the fragmentation of the collagen of Bowman's layer and a recurrent corneal erosion. Other dystrophies include Granular, where milky, white spots occur in the superficial stroma. Lattice dystrophy gives the cornea a ground glass appearance due to surface irregularity and lesions occuring within the stroma. Macular dystrophy presents as greyish-whites spots that are found in the stroma which tend to be superficial centrally and deep peripherally. In Fuch's dystrophy, the basic lesions lie within the gutatta of the corneal endothelium. This condition is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and tends to affect women more so than men. The gutatta are more numerous in the central cornea and spread peripherally as the condition advances. Patients with Fuch's dystrophy have a deficiency in their endothelial cells. If these cells are lost or damaged, they do not regenerate. The endothelial cells that remain tend to "spread out" to fill the existing empty spaces created by the loss of endothelial cells. This results in a less efficient pumping system that can lead to corneal swelling and a loss of vision. This swelling may be more noticeable in the morning and may clear up to some degree as the day progresses. Sodium chloride or salt solution drops or ointment can be prescribed to reduce the swelling. If these dystrophies progress to the point that vision is severely compromised, corneal transplant surgery may be necessary to restore lost vision. The picture below is a magnified photograph of the cornea. The "edema" that is seen under bright light is caused by Fuch's corneal endothelial dystrophy and is seen as this "mottled" appearance.

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Other websites that you can visit include:

www.fuchs-dystrophy.com

www.fuchs-dystrophy.org/links1.html

www.dog.org/2000/e-abstract_2000/35.html

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